All-electric vehicles, also referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), use a battery pack to store the electrical energy that powers the motor. The batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle in to an electric power source. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency categorizes all-electric vehicles as zero-emission vehicles because they produce no direct exhaust or tailpipe emissions.  

Both heavy-duty and light-duty all-electric vehicles are commercially available. BEVs are typically more expensive than similar conventional and hybrid vehicles, although some cost can be recovered through fuel savings, a federal tax credit, or state incentives.  

Depending on the application, battery-electric trucks can be cost competitive with diesel today on a total cost of ownership basis. In studies conducted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), ICF, and the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) that analyzed the total cost of ownership for vehicles purchased today and projected costs in 2030 for Class 8 short-haul semi-trucks, battery-electric trucks are less expensive than diesel vehicles on a total cost of ownership basis for vehicles purchased within the next 10 years.



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