All-electric vehicles, also referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), use a battery pack to store the electrical energy that powers the motor. The batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency categorizes all-electric vehicles as zero-emission vehicles because they produce no direct exhaust or tailpipe emissions.

Both heavy-duty and light-duty all-electric vehicles are commercially available. BEVs are typically more expensive than similar conventional and hybrid vehicles, although some costs can be recovered through fuel savings, federal tax credits, or state incentives.

Total Cost of Ownership

Depending on the application, battery-electric trucks can be cost-competitive with diesel today on a total cost of ownership basis. In studies conducted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), ICF, and the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) that analyzed the total cost of ownership for vehicles purchased today and projected costs in 2030 for Class 8 short-haul semi-trucks, battery-electric trucks are less expensive than diesel vehicles on a total cost of ownership basis for vehicles purchased within the next ten years.

Fuel Savings

Fuel is one of the top operational expenses for fleets. Electric vehicles boast high fuel economy, which can greatly reduce operational costs. In fact, light-duty all-electric operation and maintenance averages 3 cents per mile according to the U.S. General Services Administration.

Electricity is also less volatile than gasoline or diesel prices, so fleets can accurately predict their fuel costs over time. And fleets may be able to further improve their energy savings by taking advantage of lower off-peak electric rates for charging their E.V. fleets.

Fuel savings can also be heavily impacted by the route and vocation of the vehicle. Last mile delivery vehicles have been many of the first to adopt because their routes are prone to fuel-guzzling, stop-and-go driving conditions.

Charging Infrastructure

A coalition of utilities and private sector investors is working on national charging networks, but currently, most fleets rely on private charging. This trend is expected to continue in the near future.


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